Mark Allen Peterson
Ethnography of communication, mass media, information technologies, nationalism, transnationalism and globalization, semiotics, drama and spectacle. Areas: Egypt, India, United States.
2012. International Studies: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Global Issues. Second edition. With Sheldon Anderson, Jeanne A.K. Hey, Charles Stevens and Stanley W. Toops. Westview.
2011. Connected in Cairo: Growing up Cosmopolitan in the Modern Middle East. Indiana University Press.
2007. International Studies: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Global Issues. With Sheldon Anderson, Jeanne A.K. Hey, Charles Stevens and Stanley W. Toops. Westview.
2003. Anthropology and Mass Communication: Media and Myth in the New Millennium. Berghahn Books.
2014. Katibs and computers: Innovation and ideology in the Urdu newspaper revival. Contemporary South Asia 22(2): 130-142.
2013. “Connecting Media: Understanding Indexical Practice” Tsantsa 18: 86-95.
2011. ‘Toward an Ethnography of Contingency in the Egyptian Uprisings” Anthropologies 9
2010. “Agents of Hybridity: Class, Culture Brokers, and the Entrepreneurial Imagination in Cosmopolitan Cairo.” Research in Economic Anthropology 30: 225-256.
2010. “Imsukuhum Kulhum! Modernity and Morality in Egyptian Children’s Consumption.” Journal of Consumer Culture 10(2): 233-253.
2010. “Journalism as Trope” Anthropology News 51(4): 8-9.
2009. “What Is the Point of Media Anthropology?” Social Anthropology 17(3): 337-340, 342-344.
2007. “Making Global News: ‘Freedom of Speech’ and ‘Muslim Rage’ in U.S. Journalism” Contemporary Islam: Dynamics of Muslim Life 1(3): 247-264.
2006. “Technologies of Connecting and the Teaching of Anthropology.” Teaching Anthropology 12(2): 24-27.
2005. “The Jinn and the Computer: Consumption and Identity in Arabic Children’s Magazines.” Childhood12(2): 177 – 200.
2004. “Accessing Egypt: Making Myths and Producing Web Sites in Cyber-Cairo.” New Reviews in Hypermedia and Multimedia 10(2): 199-219. With Ivan Panovic (second author).
2003. “Language ideology and the politics of performance.” Teaching Anthropology 9(2): 20-22, 37-38.
2002. “Choosing the wasteland: The social construction of self as viewer in the U.S.” M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture 5(6)
2001. “Situations and interpretations: Explorations in interpretive practice.” (With William O. Beeman, first author) Introduction to special issue of Anthropological Quarterly 74(4): 159-162.
2001. “Getting to the story: Unwriteable discourse and interpretive practice in American journalism.” Anthropological Quarterly 74(4): 201-211.
2000. “For as long as I can remember, anthropology has been reinventing itself. An interview with Donald Powell Cole.” Nomadic Peoples (4) 2: 7-20.
1999. “Computer khatbas: Databases and marital entrepreneurship in modern Cairo.” With Shereen Ali Abu Hashish (first author). Anthropology Today 15(6): 7-11.
1998. “The rhetoric of epidemic in India: News coverage of AIDS.” Alif: The Journal of Comparative Poetics. 18: 237-268.
1991. “Aliens, ape-men and whacky savages: Anthropologists in the tabloids.” Anthropology Today 7(5): 4-7.
1991. “Defining worlds: The semantics of development.” Brown Forum on Third World Affairs 1(1) December.
2012. “Ethnography as Theory and Method in the Study of Political Communication” (with Debra Spitulnik Vidali, first author). Sage Handbook of Political Communication. Holli A. Semetko and Margaret Scammell, eds. Pp. 264-275. Sage Publications, Ltd.
2010. “‘But It Is My Habit to Take the Times’: Metaculture and Practice in the Reading of Indian Newspapers.” Theorizing Media and Practice. Birgit Brauchler and John Postill, eds. Berghahn.
2009. “Getting the News in New Delhi.” The Anthropology of News and Journalism. Elizabeth Bird, ed. Pp. 267-288. Indiana University Press.
2007. “From Jinn to Genies: Intertextuality, Media, and the Rise of Global Folklore.” In Folklore/Cinema: Popular Film as Vernacular Culture. Mikel J. Koven and Sharon Sherman, ed. Pp. 93-112. Utah State University Press.
2005. “Performing Media: Toward an Ethnography of Intertextuality.” In Media Anthropology, Mihai Coman and Eric Rothenbuhler, eds. Pp. 129-138. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Books.
2003. “American warriors speaking American: The metapragmatics of performance in the nation state.” In At War With Words. Mirjana N. Dedaic and Daniel N. Nelson, eds. Pp. 421-448. Walter de Gruyter.
2002. “Aliens, Ape-Men and Whacky Savages: The Anthropologist in the Tabloids.” In The Best of Anthropology Today. Jonathan Benthall, ed. London and New York: Routledge.
2001. “Unlocking the power of the internet in postsecondary education.” In Information Technology in Egypt: Challenges and Impact. Pp. 14-36. Mahmoud Farag, ed. The American University in Cairo. With Samy Akabawy (second author), Brent Carper (first author), John Hill (fifth author) and Dan Tschirgi (fourth author).
2000. “Nahwa il ‘Umiya: Discursive dissonance in women’s literacy classes.” In Research and Education in Egypt: A Millennial Assessment. Pp. 272-293. Mahmoud Farag, ed. The American University in Cairo. With Moyra Dale (first author)
1999. “Communication and cultural identity: Language policy and ‘human development’ in India and the United States.” In Human Development for the 21st Century. Pp. 230-242. Mahmoud Farag, ed. The American University in Cairo.
1998. “Languages of globalization: Modernity and authority.” In Globalization: Blessing or Curse? Mahmoud Farag, ed. Pp. 119-127. The American University in Cairo.
Reviews and Reports
2012. Review of Making Our Media: Global Initiatives Toward a Democratic Public Sphere, Volume One: Creating New Communication Spaces. Rodríguez, Clemencia, Dorothy Kidd and Laura Stein, eds. (Creskill, NJ: Hampton Pres,. 2010) and Making Our Media: Global Initiatives Toward a Democratic Public Sphere, Volume Two: National and Global Movements for Democratic Communication Stein, Laura, Dorothy Kidd and Clemencia Rodríguez, eds.(Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2009). Mediekultur 28(52): 185-188.
2011. Review of Shaktima No Veh. A film by Jayasinhji Jhala (2006).Anthropology Review Database.
2011. Review of Mardi Gras: Made in China. A film by David Redmon (2008). Anthropology Review Database.
2011. Giving Florida’s Students a Third World Education. Palm Beach Post, Oct. 24. Op-ed.
2010. Review of Gone to Pat. Directed by Mainik Bhaumak. (2005). Anthropology Review Database.
2010. Review of Changing Consumer Cultures of Modern Egypt: Cairo’s Urban Reshaping. Mona Abaza (Brill, 2006). Journal of Consumer Culture 10(1): 161-164.
2009 Review of The Word Weavers: Newshounds and Wordsmiths. Jean Aitchison (Cambridge University Press, 2007). Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 19(2): 336-337.
2008. Review of Shimmering Screens: Making Media in an Aboriginal Community. Jennifer Deger (University of Minnesota Press, 2006). Anthropology Review Database.
2008. Review of Locating Home: India’s Hyderabadi’s Abroad Karen Isaksen Leonard (Stanford University Press, 2007). American Anthropologist 110(4): 526-527
2008. “The Anthropology of News and Journalism: A Bibliography” European Association of Social Anthropologists Media Anthropology Network web site.
2008. Camel Fodder on Facebook. CyberOrient, July 15. Now hosted on Digital Islam.
2008. The Short and Long of It. tabsir.net, July 16.
2007. Review of Markets of Dispossession: NGOs, Economic Development, and the State in Cairo. Julia Elyachar (Duke University Press, 2005). Anthropology Review Database.
2006b Review of Dramas of Nationhood: The Politics of Television in Egypt. Lila Abu-Lughod (2004, University of California Press). Visual Anthropology 21(1/2): 183-185.
2006. “Sampling Frame for a Study of Egyptian Government Elites.” Report for Ipsos-Public Affairs Consulting Group (Client: Microsoft).
2005. “Bourdieu, Pierre.” In The Encyclopedia of Anthropology, James Birx, ed. Pp. 395-397. Sage Books.
2005d “Paralanguage.” In The Encyclopedia of Anthropology, James Birx, ed. Pp. 1826-1827. Sage Books.
2005c “Saussure, Ferdinand de.” In The Encyclopedia of Anthropology, James Birx, ed. Pp. 2055-2056. Sage Books.
2005b “Simulacra.” In The Encyclopedia of Anthropology, James Birx, ed. Pp. 2088-2089. Sage Books.
2005. “Why Media Anthropology?” Discussion of a working paper by Francisco Osorio (Universidad de Chile) entitled ‘Why Is Interest in Mass Media Anthropology Growing?’. 8th European Association of Social Anthropologists Media Anthropology Network e-seminar Nov. 8-15, 2005.
2005. “Anthropology of the Mass Media pre-1985: A Bibliography” European Association of Social Anthropologists Media Anthropology Network web site.
2004. “The role of the software industry in Egypt.” Report for Ipsos-Public Affairs Consulting Group (Client: Microsoft).
2004. Review of Speech Play and Verbal Art. Joel Sherzer (2002, University of Texas Press) American Ethnologist 31(2)
2004. Review of Religion and Folk Cosmology by El-Sayed El-Aswad (2002, Praeger). Journal of American Folklore 117(464): 231-232.
2004. Review of Consuming Youth: Vampires, Cyborgs and the Culture of Consumption. Rob Latham. Journal of American Folklore 117(464): 215-216.
2003. “Context and content in New Orleans.” Anthropology Today 19(1): 21.
2002 “Love, terror and nostalgia in Washington.” Anthropology Today 18(1): 23-24.
2001. “Making It Public: Anthropology and the Media. Review of the AAA 99th Annual Conference, San Francisco, 15-19 November 2000.” Anthropology Today, 17(1): 25-26.
2001. Review of Dialogue Analysis and the Mass Media, edited by Bernd Naumann (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1999) Discourse and Society 12(2)
2001. Review of Worlds in Common: Television Discourse in a Changing Europe by Kay Richardson and Ulrike H. Meinhof (London and New York: Routledge 1999). Discourse and Society 12(2)
2000. Review of Just Words: Law, Language and Power by John Conley and William O’Barr (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998) Discourse and Society 11(3)
2000. Review of Ideology in the Language of Judges by Susan U. Philips (Oxford University Press, 1998). Discourse and Society 11(3)
1993. Review of Language and Symbolic Power by Pierre Bourdieu (Oxford: Polity, 1991) Discourse and Society 4(4): 484-485.
1993. “Anthropology and the fourth estate. Report on the Royal Anthropological Institute’s 150th Anniversary Symposium.” Anthropology Today 9(4): 20-21.
Lectures, Seminars, Colloquia and Conference Papers
2013 “Professional Divides II: Journalists and Anthropologists in Conversations About Language, News Practice and Social Impacts” Nov. 21, 2013. Panel participant at the American Anthropological Association meetings, Chicago.2013. “Whatever Happened to the Egyptian Revolution?” Keynote address. Model Arab League. Miami University. Feb. 223.
2012. “From Education to Empowerment: Press, Democracy and Metapraxis In a Changing India.” Nov. 15, 2012. Paper given at the American Anthropological Association meetings, San Francisco.
2012. “Professional Divides: Journalists and Anthropologists in Conversations About Language, News Practice and Social Impacts” Nov. 17, 2012. Panel participant at the American Anthropological Association meetings, San Francisco.
2012. “In Search of Anti-Structure: The Meanings of Tahrir in Egypt’s Ongoing Revolution.” Paper given at the conference “The Egyptian Revolution, One Year On: Causes, Characteristics and Fortunes.” 18-19 May 2012. Department of Politics and International Relations, Oxford University.
2012. “News Parody and Social Media: The Rise of Egypt’s Fifth Estate” Paper given at the panel “All the News? Reporting and Media 2.0” at the International Studies Association meetings in San Diego, CA April 2, 2012.
2011. “Egypt’s experimental moment: contingent thoughts on media and social change.” e-contribution to European Association of Social Anthropologists Media Anthropology Network workshop and research project on “Critical Perspectives on Media and Social Change.” School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 27 May.
2011. “Indexicality, iconicity and language ideology in the Urdu news revival” European Association of Social Anthropologists Media Anthropology Network e-seminar Jan. 7-21.
2010 “From insider to outsider: Professionalization and distance in ethnography and journalism.” American Anthropological Association annual meetings, New Orleans, Nov. 19.
2010. “Theoretically Sophisticated Ethnography: A Commentary on Blommaert and Huang.” Discussion of a working paper by Jan Blommaert (Tilburg University) and April Huang (University of Jyväskylä) entitled “Historical Bodies and Historical Space.” 1st UK Linguistic Ethnography Forum e-seminar Feb. 24-Mar 5, 2010.
2009. “Indexicality, Iconicity and Language Ideology in the Urdu News revival” American Anthropological Association annual meetings, Philadelphia, Dec. 9.
2009. Chair, co-discussant. “People, Places and Politics of Asia in the 21st Century.” Midwest Conference on Asian Affairs, Miami University, 16 Oct.
2008. “Indigenous Media: Empowerment, Problems and Contradictions” Special lecture at “Rethinking Paradigms in Anthropology: National Symposium on Tribes,” Delhi University, New Delhi, Dec. 26.
2008. “Freelance Journalism in India and the U.S.” Times School of Media Studies. New Delhi. Dec 22.
2008. “The Anthropology of Films” Presentation to the Ethnography Working Group, Delhi University, New Delhi, Dec. 18.
2008. “Dialogical Anthropology” Presentation to the Ethnography Working Group, Delhi University, New Delhi, India, Nov. 6.
2006. “Reporting a Global Story: Practices of Reification in North American Newsmaking.” American Anthropological Association annual meetings, San Jose, Nov. 18.
2006. Discussant for “Language Matters in the Media: Representations of Identity, Diversity and Expertise” American Anthropological Association annual meetings, San Jose, Nov. 16.
2006. “Teaching the Middle East from an Interdisciplinary Perspective.” International Studies Association, San Diego, Mar. 25.
2006. “Invisible Travelers: Jinn and Genies on the Silk Road,” lecture given as part of the ILR Silk Road Lecture Series, “Silk Road ExplorAsian: Pathway of Cultures” Miami University Art Museum, Mar. 20.
2006. “All Stories are Local: Rethinking the Muhammed Cartoon Controversy.” Keynote address. Model Arab League. Miami University. Feb. 23.
2005. “Pokemon’s Sin: Moral Choices in Global Cairo” American Anthropological Association meetings, Washington, DC, December.
2005. “The Islamization of Pokemon.” Central States Anthropological Society meetings, Oxford, OH, March.
2005 “Technologies of Connecting and the Teaching of Anthropology.” Central States Anthropological Society meetings, Oxford, OH, March.
2004. “Is Male to ‘Ahwa as Female is to Latté? Coffee Houses and Gendered Cosmopolitanism in Cairo.” Paper accepted for American Anthropological Association meetings, San Francisco, CA, Nov. Meeting canceled.
2004. Panelist for “Racial Legacies and Learning XII: How to Talk About Race – The Arab American and Muslim Experience after September 11” Oct. 21. Harry T. Wilks Conference Center, Miami University Hamilton.
2004. “Media and Popular Perceptions of the United States in the Middle East.” Part of panel discussion “The Conflict In Iraq: A Community Discussion.” Miami University Hamilton Campus, April 29.
2004. “The World and the Media after 9/11: Lessons from Egypt.” Keynote address at the Model Arab League, Miami University, February 26.
2004. “My First Famous Book: A Tale of Existential Despair.” Address given at the Miami University New Author’s Reception, Jan. 22.
2003. “Freedom Fighters and Sinful Seths: Moral Economies and Economic Moralities in India’s Press.” American Anthropological Association, Chicago, Nov. 22.
2002. “Language Ideology and the Politics of Performance.” American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, Nov. 20.
2002. “Media, Morality and the Myth of Bin Laden: Voices From Egypt.” Gettysburg College, Sept. 11.
2002. “Getting the News in New Delhi: Newspaper Literacies in the Indian Mediascape.” Georgetown University’s Communication, Culture and Technology Program Lecture Series, April 29.
2002. “Institutionalizing Synergy: Empowering the Learning Community Through Information and Communication Technologies.” Paper presented at the Eighth American University in Cairo Research Conference, April (with Samy Akabawy, Brent Carper, John Hill and Dan Tschirgi).
2002. “What’s Going on Here? Workshop for Graduates Students on Theory and Method in the Social Sciences.” American University in Cairo, March.
2001. “Imsukhum Kulhum: Kids, Commodities and Transnational Imaginations in Cairo.” Paper presented at the American Anthropological Association annual meeting, Washington, DC. November-December.
2001. “How Area Specialists Can Help Each Other and Our Friends in the Current Emergency.” Panelist. The American Anthropological Association, Middle East Section. Washington, DC. November-December.
2001. “Anthropolitical Linguistics and Language Policy: Public Debates and Our Possible Roles.” Discussant. The American Anthropological Association annual meeting, Washington, DC. November-December.
2001. “Unlocking the Power of the Internet for Postsecondary Learning in a Global Environment.” Paper given at the Global Business and Technology Association’s conference on “Facilitating Change in the Global Environment” at Yeditepe University in Istanbul, Turkey, July. (with Brent Carper, Samy Akabawy, John Hill and Dan Tschirgi)
2001. “Localizing New Media: The Next Phase of Research.” Paper given at the workshop on “New Directions in Middle East Media and Communications Technology Research” Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, April.
2001. “Web Sites in the Classroom: Four Case Studies” (with Shearin Abdel Moneim). Paper presented at the AUC workshop on “Advancing the Role of Technology in Education: In Class and Beyond.” American University in Cairo, April.
2001. “Unlocking the Power of the Internet in Postsecondary Education.” Paper presented at the Seventh American University in Cairo Research Conference, April. (with Samy Akabawy, Brent Carper, John Hill and Dan Tschirgi)
2000. “Mediated Marketing: The Global and the Multilocal in Transnational Advertising.” American Anthropological Association annual meetings, San Francisco, CA. November.
2000. “Why Anthropologists Aren’t Experts” Anthropology’s Public Face: Encounters with the Media. Co-chair and discussant. Invited double session of the National Association of Practicing Anthropologists. American Anthropological Association annual meetings, San Francisco, CA. November
2000. “After the thesis: Preparing for the PhD.” Graduate Student Association PhD Workshop. American University in Cairo. May.
2000. “Nahwa il ‘Umiya: Discursive dissonance in women’s literacy classes.” Paper presented at the Sixth American University in Cairo Research Conference. March. (with Moyra Dale)
1999. “Getting to the story: Off-the-record discourse as interpretive practice.” Paper presented at the American Anthropological Association annual meetings, Chicago, DC. November
1999. “Whatever happened to media anthropology?” Workshop presented at the Media Anthropology Summer School, University of Hamburg. September.
1999. “Imagined audiences, imagined media.” Workshop presented at the Media Anthropology Summer School, University of Hamburg. September.
1999. “Communication and cultural identity: Language policies in global cultures.” Paper presented at the Sixth American University in Cairo Research Conference. March.
1998. “McDonald’s and the languages of globalization.” Paper presented at the Fifth American University in Cairo Research Conference. March.
1998. “Developing persons: Thoughts on development as a cultural system.” Paper presented at the Hitotsubashi University and American University in Cairo joint International Workshop on Development and Culture in Asian Societies. Cairo, Egypt. November.
1998. “Global journalism and local newsmaking.” Paper presented at the American Anthropological Association annual meetings, Washington, DC. December
1998. Panelist. “Toward an Anthropolitical Linguistics.” Special session of the Society for Linguistic Anthropology at the American Anthropological Association annual meetings, Washington, DC. December.
1995. “Between report and story: Looking at news like a linguist.” Guest lecture. American University. August.
1993. “Getting our names in the papers: What does anthropology have to offer the mass media?” Paper presented at “Profile, Image and Audience: Anthropology in the Media,” invited session at the American Anthropological Association annual meetings, Washington, DC. November.
1993. “Truth and modernity in Indian and American journalism,” Indian Institute of Mass Communications, Jawaharlal Nehru University, November.
1993. “Language and style in journalism: India and America,” Creative Writing Academy, New Delhi, October.
1992. “The human science.” Brown Learning Community. Funded by a NASA grant for scientific outreach to high school students.
1992. “Ideas of Culture.” Session I of the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Docent Workshop, “Anthropology as a Perspective.” Jan. 9, 1992. Bristol, RI.
1991. “The secular saint: An anthropologist looks at the Santa Claus myth.” Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, Bristol, RI. December.
1991. “Media and mass culture in India: The case of the Ramayana.” Public lecture. Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, Bristol, RI. May.
1991. “Cautionary veils: Constructing gender and Islam in The New York Times,” Pembroke Center for the Teaching and Study of Women, Brown University, May.
1990. “Off whose record? Analyzing the unwritable in American journalism,” Annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans. December.
1990 “The acting self: Toward a social semiotics of performance,” New Directions in Anthropology, Brown University, February.
1989. “Aliens, ape-men and whacky savages: The anthropologist in the popular press,” Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, Bristol, RI. December.
1989. “Performing journalism: Going native as applied anthropology,” Center for Anthropology and Journalism, Washington, DC, February.
1988. Spreadsheet applications in anthropology and archaeology,” Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, November.
Anthropology and Film (AUC)
Cultural Anthropology (AUC)
Culture and Human Behavior (Brown)
Ethnographic Fieldwork (AUC) Graduate course
Fieldwork Methods (AUC, Gettysburg)
Globalization and (Post)Modernity (AUC) Graduate course
Intercultural Relations (Miami)
International Intellectual Property Issues (Miami)
Introduction to Anthropology (George Mason, Gettysburg)
Introduction to International Studies (Miami)
Language and Culture (Miami)
Language In Culture (AUC)
Linguistics for Teachers (Goucher)
Media Anthropology (University of Hamburg) Graduate course
Media, Culture and Society in the Islamic World (AUC)
Media, Minorities and Language (Georgetown) Graduate course
Peoples and Cultures of the Contemporary U.S. (AUC)
Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East (Gettysburg, Miami)
Peoples and Cultures of South Asia (AUC)
Peoples of the World (Miami)
Perspectives on Culture (Miami)
Political Anthropology (AUC)
Practice Theory (AUC)
Problems of the Middle East (Miami)
Psychological Anthropology: Culture, Self and Society (AUC, Gettysburg)
Social Thought (AUC) Graduate course
Sound and Symbol: Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology (Brown)
Symbols and Commodities (Georgetown) Graduate course
Travelers, Migrants and Refugees (Miami)
World Media (Miami)
2013-Present. Chair and Professor, Department of Anthropology; Professor, International Studies Program. Miami University. Oxford, OH.
2011-2012. Professor of Anthropology and International Studies. Miami University. Oxford, OH.
2007-2011. Associate Professor of Anthropology and International Studies. Miami University. Oxford, OH.
2009-2101. Acting Chair, Department of Anthropology.
2003-2007. Assistant Professor of Anthropology and International Studies. Miami University. Oxford, OH.
2002-2003. Visiting Assistant Professor, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA.
2002-2003. Adjunct Associate Professor, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
1997-2002. Assistant Professor, The American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt.
1998. Visiting Lecturer. University of Hamburg Summer School in Media Anthropology.
1996-1997. Adjunct Assistant Professor. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.
1996. Adjunct Assistant Professor. Goucher College, Towson, MD
1994-1997. Managing Editor, The Stars and Stripes (US Edition), Washington DC.
1990-1991. Public relations officer. The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology. Bristol, R.I.
1996. Brown University, Providence, R.I. Ph.D., Anthropology
Dissertation: Writing the Indian Story: Press, Politics and Symbolic Power in India
1989. The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. M.A., Anthropology.
Thesis: The Social Negotiation of Performance in Denver’s Theater Community.
1984. The University of California, Los Angeles. Los Angeles, CA. B.A., Study of Religion.