Skip to content


Abaza, Mona. 2001a. Perceptions of ‘urfi Marriage in the Egyptian Press. ISIM Newsletter 7(1): 20–21.
——— . 2001b. Shopping Malls, Consumer Culture and the Reshaping of Public Space in Egypt. Theory, Culture and Society 18(5): 97–122.
——— . 2006. Changing Consumer Cultures of Modern Egypt: Cairo’s Urban Reshaping. Leiden: Brill.

Abu-Hashish, Shereen, and Mark Allen Peterson. 1999. Computer Khatbas: Databases and Marital Entrepreneurship in Modern Cairo. Anthropology Today 15(6): 7–11.

Abu-Lughod, Lila. 1986. Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
——— . 1997. Th e Interpretation of Culture(s) aft er Television. Representations 59: 109–134.
——— . 1998a. Television and the Virtues of Education: Upper Egyptian Encounters with State Culture. In Directions of Change in Rural Egypt, ed. Nicholas Hopkins and
Kirsten Westergaard. Pp. 147–165. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
——— . 1998b. The Marriage of Feminism and Islamism in Egypt: Selective Repudiation of Postcolonial Cultural Politics. In Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity
in the Middle East, ed. Lila Abu-Lughod. Pp. 243–269. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
——— . 2005. Dramas of Nationhood: Th e Politics of Television in Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Alam, Muzaff ar, and Sanjay Subrahmanyam. 2004. Th e Making of a Munshi. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 24(2): 61–72.

Allam, Abeer. 2003. Making Near Beer Acceptable in Near East. New York Times, Jan. 4:
659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all (accessed Sept. 8, 2008).

Anderson, Jon W. 2003a. The Internet and Islam’s New Interpreters. In New Media in the Muslim World, ed. Dale Eickelman and Jon W. Anderson. Pp. 45–60. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
——— . 2003b. New Media, New Publics: Reconfiguring the Public Sphere of Islam. Social Research 70(3): 887–906.

Armbrust, Walter. 1996a. Mass Culture and Modernization in Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
——— . 1996b. Terrorism and Kabab: A Capra-esque View of Modern Egypt. In Images of Enchantment: Performance, Art, and Image of the Middle East, ed. Sherifa Zuhur. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
——— . 2000. An Upper Egyptian in the American Press. SAIS Review 20(2): 207–216.
——— . 2003. Bourgeois Leisure and Egyptian Media Fantasies. In New Media in the Muslim World, ed. Dale Eickelman and Jon W. Anderson. Pp. 106–132. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
——— . 2006. When the Lights Go Down in Cairo. In Cairo Cosmopolitan, ed. Diane Singerman and Paul Amar. Pp. 415–444. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Badawi, Muhammed Mustafa. 1992. Introduction to Modern Arabic Literature, ed. M. M. Badawi. Pp. 1–22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Badawi, Muhammed Mustafa, and Martin Hinds. 1986. A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic. Beirut: Librairie du Liban.

Baker, Raymond William. 1981. Sadat’s Open Door: Opposition from Within. Social Problems 28(4): 378–384.

Barsoum, Ghada. 1999. Female Graduates in Egypt: The Jobs Dilemma. In Human Development for the 21st Century: Proceedings of the Sixth American University in Cairo Research Conference, ed. Mohamed Farag. Cairo: American University in Cairo.
——— . 2004. The Employment Crisis of Female Graduates in Egypt: An Ethnographic Account. Cairo Papers in Social Science 25(3): 1–121.
References 239

Bassiouney Reem. 2006. Functions of Code Switching in Egypt: Evidence from Monologues. Leiden: Brill.
—–. 2009. Arabic Sociolinguistics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
—–. 2010. Arabic  and  the  Media:  Linguistic  Analyses  and Applications. Leiden: Brill.

Bautista, Julius. 2008. The Meta-Theory of Piety: Reflections on the Work of Saba Mahmood. Journal of Contemporary Islam 2: 75–83.

Bayat, Asef. 1997. Cairo’s Poor–Dilemmas of Survival and Security. Middle East Report (Winter): 2–8.
——— . 2002. Piety, Privilege and Egyptian Youth. ISIM Newsletter 10(2): 23.

Beinin, Joel. 2007. The Militancy of Mahalla al-Kubra. Middle East Report Online, Sept. 29: (accessed Nov. 7, 2008).

Bieber-Roberts, Peggy, and Elisa Pierandrei. 2002. Cafe Riche: Memory in the Formation of Egyptian National Identity. Paper presented at International Association for Media and Communication Research (IAMCR), July 22: (accessed Sept. 20, 2009).

Boktor, Amir. 1936. School and Society in the Valley of the Nile. Cairo: Elias Modern Press.

Bowen, Donna Lee. 2002. Abortion and the Ethics of Life. In Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East, 2nd ed., ed. Donna Lee Bowen and Evelyn Early. Pp. 169–179. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Burkhart, Grey E., and Susan Older. 2003. The Information Revolution in the Middle East and North Africa. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand.

Cole, Donald, and Soraya Altorki. 1998. Bedouin, Settlers, and Holiday Makers: Egypt’s Changing Northwest Coast. Cairo: American University in Cairo.

Conermann, Stephan. 1996. Mustafa Mahmud und der Modifierte Islamische Diskurs. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz.

Danielson, Virginia. 1998. The Voice of Egypt: Umm Kulthum, Arabic Song, and Egyptian Society in the Twentieth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Darwish, Adel. 2007. The Surge in Egyptian Nationalism. Middle East (Oct.): 22–25.

de Koning, Anouk. 2006. Café Latte and Caesar Salad. In Cairo Cosmopolitan, ed. Diane Singerman and Paul Amar. Pp. 221–233. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Denis, Eric. 2006. Cairo as Neoliberal Capital? From Walled City to Gated Communities. In Cairo Cosmopolitan, ed. Diane Singerman and Paul Amar. Pp. 42–76. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Douglas, Allen, and Fedwa Malti-Douglas. 1994. Arab Comic Strips: Politics of an Emerging Mass Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Dwyer, Kevin. 1987. Moroccan Dialogues: Anthropology in Question. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland.

Eickelman, Dale. 2002. Inside the Islamic Reformation. In Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East, 2nd ed., ed. Donna Lee Bowen and Evelyn A. Early. Pp. 246–256. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Eickelman, Dale, and Jon W. Anderson. 1997. Publishing in Muslim Countries: Less Censorship, New Audiences and the Rise of the Islamic Book. Logos 8(4): 192–198.

El-Aswad, El-Sayed. 2002. Religion and Folk Cosmology: Scenarios of the Visible and Invisible in Rural Egypt. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

El-Ghobashy, Mona. 2005. Egypt Looks Ahead to Portentous Year. Middle East Report On-Line. (accessed Sept. 18, 2010).

El-Hamamsy, Laila Shukry. 1982. The Assertion of Egyptian Identity. In Ethnic Identity: Cultural Communities and Change, ed. George De Vos and Lola Romanucci-Ross. Pp. 276–306. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

El Husaami, Nabih. 2000. Pokémon: Legendary Characters Sneak into Arab Children’s Bedrooms (in Arabic). Al-Sharq Al Awsat (London), Oct. 17: 15.

El-Katatney, Ethar. 2007. A Religious Rock Star. Egypt Today, Oct.: http://www.egypt (accessed Mar. 22, 2008).

El Kholy, Heba Aziz. 2003. Defiance and Compliance: Negotiating Gender in Low-Income Cairo. New York: Berghahn.

El-Messiri, Nur, James Deemer, and Djenane Kamil-Sirry. 1992. Profile of Students. In Report of Task Force for Academic Excellence. Cairo: American University in Cairo.

El-Messiri, Sawsan. 1978. Ibn al Balad: A Concept of Egyptian Identity. Leiden: Brill.

El-Shakry, Omnia. 2007. The Great Social Laboratory: Subjects of Knowledge in Colonial and Postcolonial Egypt. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Elyachar, Julia. 2005. Markets of Dispossession: NGOs, Economic Development and the State in Cairo. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
—–. 2011. The political economy of movement and gesture in Cairo. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 17(1): 82–99.
—–. 2012. Before and after neoliberalism: Tacit Knowledge, Secrets of the Trade, and the Public Sector in Egypt. Cultural Anthropology 27(1): 76-96.

Essoulami, Said. 2000. The Press in the Arab World: 100 Years of Suppressed Freedom. Casablanca, Morocco: Center for Media Freedom.
242 Re f e rences

Euromonitor. 2001. Consumer Middle East 2001. London: Euromonitor International.

Fabos, Anita. 2008. Resisting “Blackness”: Muslim Arab Sudanese in the Diaspora. ISIM Review 21: 24–25.

Farag, Iman. 2001. Private Lives, Public Affairs: The Uses of Adab. In Muslim Traditions and Modern Techniques of Power, ed. Armando Salvatore. Pp. 93–120. Munster, Germany: Lit Verlag.

Fellman, Jack. 1973. Language and National Identity: The Case of the Middle East. Anthropological Linguistics 15(1): 244–249.
Ferguson, Charles. 1971[1959]. Diglossia. In Language Structure and Language Use: Essays by Charles Ferguson. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Fernea, Elizabeth. 2002. The Veiled Revolution. In Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East, 2nd ed., ed. Donna Lee Bowen and Evelyn A. Early. Pp. 151–157. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Fick, David S. 2002. Entrepreneurship in Africa: A Study of Successes. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood.

Gaffney, Patrick D. 1994. The Prophet’s Pulpit: Islamic Preaching in Contemporary Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ghannam, Farha. 2002. Remaking the Modern Space: Relocation and the Politics of Identity in a Global Cairo. Berkeley: University of California Press.
—–. 2011. Mobility, liminality, and embodiment in urban Egypt. American Ethnologist, 38(4): 790–800

Gilsenan, Michael. 1982. Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Arab World. New York: Pantheon.

Golia, Maria. 2004. The Debilitating Impact of Egypt’s Emergency Law. Daily Star (Lebanon), Mar. 30:
_id=5&article_id=1340 (accessed Apr. 25, 2006).

Gordon, Joel. 2002. Revolutionary Melodrama: Popular Film and Civic Identity in Nasser’s Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Middle East Center.

Grippo, James R. 2006. The Fool Sings a Hero’s Song: Shaaban Abdel Rahim, Egyptian Shaabi, and the Video Clip Phenomenon. Transnational Broadcasting Studies 16:

Haeri, Niloofar. 1997. The Reproduction of Symbolic Capital: Language, State and Class in Egypt. Current Anthropology 38(5): 795–816.
——— . 2003. Sacred Language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt. New York: Palgrave.

Hafez, Sherine. 2003. The Terms of Empowerment: Islamic Women Activists in Egypt. Cairo Papers in Social Science 24(4): 1–122.

Hattox, Ralph S. 1985. Coffee and Coffeehouses: The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Hawkes, Rebecca. 1997. The Zilo Interview. Middle East Broadcast and Satellite 5(3): 28.

Heineken Press Centre. 2002. Heineken Bid for Al-Ahram Shares Successful. http://www (accessed Sept. 3, 2008).

Heyworth-Dunne, James. 1968. An Introduction to a History of Education in Egypt. London: Cass.

Hinnebusch, Raymond. 1982. Children of the Elite: Political Attitudes of the Westernized Bourgeoisie in Contemporary Egypt. Middle East Journal 36(4): 535–561.

Hirschkind, Charles. 2001. The Ethics of Listening: Cassette-Sermon Audition in Contemporary Egypt. American Ethnologist 28(3): 623–649.
——— . 2006a. Cassette Ethics: Public Piety and Popular Media in Egypt. In Religion, Media and the Public Sphere, ed. Birgit Meyer and Annelies Moors. Pp. 29–51. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
——— . 2006b. The Ethical Soundscape: Cassette Sermons and Islamic Counterpublics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hoffman-Ladd, Valerie J. 1987. Polemics on the Modesty and Segregation of Women in Contemporary Egypt. International Journal of Middle East Studies 19: 23–50.

Hoodfar, Hoda. 1997. Between Marriage and the Market. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ibrahim, Saad Eddin. 1982. Social Mobility and Income Distribution in Egypt, 1952–1975. In Political Economy of Income Distribution in Egypt, ed. Gouda Abdel Khalek and Robert Tigner. Pp. 375–434. New York: Holmes and Meiers.
——— . 1996. Egypt, Islam and Democracy. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Inhorn, Marcia. 1995. Infertility and Patriarchy: The Cultural Politics of Gender and Family Life in Egypt. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
——— . 2003. Local Babies, Global Science: Gender, Religion and In Vitro Fertilization in Egypt. London: Routledge.

Jankowski, James. 1986. Egypt, Islam and the Arabs: The Search for Egyptian Nationhood, 1900–1930. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jankowski, James, and Israel Gershoni. 1995. Redefining the Egyptian Nation, 1930–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kehrer, Michaela. 2006. Transnational Consumer Goods Corporations (TNCs) in Egypt: Reaching toward the Mass Market. Research in Economic Anthropology 25: 151–172.

MacLeod, Arlene. 1991. Accommodating Protest: Working Women, the New Veiling and Change in Cairo. New York: Columbia University Press.

Mahmood, Saba. 2001a. Feminist Theory, Embodiment, and the Docile Agent: Some Reflections on the Egyptian Islamic Revival. Cultural Anthropology 16(2): 202–236.
——— . 2001b. Rehearsed Spontaneity and the Conventionality of Ritual Disciplines of Salat. American Ethnologist 25(4): 827–853.

Margolis, Eric. 2007. Guest Editor’s Introduction. Visual Studies 22(1): 11–12.
——— . 2005. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Medalag, Hafez el. 2000. The Responsible and the Responsibility!!! Al Riyad (Saudi Arabia), Dec. 16: 27.

Mehrez, Samia. 2008. Egypt’s Culture Wars: Politics and Practice. London: Routledge.

Mellor, Noha. 2005. The Making of Arab News. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield.

Mitchell, Timothy. 1988. Colonising Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press.
——— . 1999. Dreamland: The Neoliberalism of Your Desires. Middle East Report (Spring): 28–33.
——— . 2002. Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Mostafa, Hadia. 2005a. Business Secrets of the Sawiris Family. Business Today Egypt. (accessed May 14, 2010).
——— . 2005b. Bottlenecked. Business Today Egypt.
/article.aspx?ArticleID=6072 (accessed Sept. 8, 2008).
——— . 2005c. Top Dollar. Egypt Today 26(12):
?ArticleID=6176 (accessed Feb. 25, 2010).

Murphy, Lawrence R. 1987. The American University in Cairo: 1919–1987. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Olivier, Roy. 1994. The Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Osman, Osman M. 1998. Development and Poverty Reduction Strategies in Egypt. Cairo: ERF.

Ossman, Susan. 2002. Three Faces of Beauty: Casablanca, Paris, Cairo. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Page, John. 2001. Getting Ready for Globalization: A New Privatization Strategy for the Middle East? In State-Owned Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa: Privatization, Performance and Reform, ed. Merih Celasun. Pp. 63–88. London: Routledge.

Peterson, Mark Allen. 1998. Languages of Globalization. In Globalization: Blessing or Curse? ed. Mohammed Farag. Pp. 119–127. Cairo: American University in Cairo.
——— . 2003. Anthropology and Mass Communication: Media and Myth in the New Millennium. New York: Berghahn.
——— . 2007. From Jinn to Genies: Intertextuality, Media, and the Rise of Global Folklore. In Folklore/Cinema: Popular Film as Vernacular Culture, ed. Mikel J. Koven and Sharon Sherman. Pp. 93–112. Logan: Utah State University Press.

Peterson, Mark Allen, and Ivan Panovic. 2004. Accessing Egypt: Making Myths and Producing Web Sites in Cyber-Cairo. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 10(2): 199–219.

Pollard, Lisa. 2003. Working by the Book: New Homes and the Emergence of the Modern Egyptian State under Muhamed Ali. In Transitions in Domestic Consumption and Family Life in the Modern Middle East, ed. Relli Shechter. Pp. 13–36. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Pripstein, Marsha. 1995. Egypt’s New Labor Law Removes Worker Provisions. Middle East Report 194–195: 52–53, 64.

Ram, Uri. 2007. Liquid Identities: Mecca Cola versus Coca-Cola. European Journal of Cultural Studies 10(4): 465–484.

Reid, Donald M. 1977. Educational and Career Choices of Egyptian Students, 1882–1922. International Journal of Middle East Studies 8: 349–378.

Renard, John. 2007. Al-Jihad al-Akbar: Notes on a Theme in Islamic Spirituality. Muslim World 78(3–4): 225–242.

Robertson, Roland. 1992. Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage.

Rock, Aaron. 2010. Amr Khaled: From Da‘wa to Political and Religious Leadership. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 37(1): 15–37.

Rodenbeck, Max. 1999. Cairo: The City Victorious. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Russell, Michael E. 1994. Cultural Reproduction in Egypt’s Private University. Unpublished Ph.D. diss., University of Kentucky.

Russell, Mona. 2003. Modernity, National Identity and Consumerism: Visions of the Egyptian Home 1805–1922. In Transitions in Domestic Consumption and Family Life in the Modern Middle East, ed. Relli Shechter. Pp. 37–62. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
——— . 2004. Creating the New Egyptian Woman: Consumerism, Education and National Identity 1863–1922. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ryzova, Lucie. 2005. Egyptianising Modernity: Social and Cultural Constructions of the Middle Classes in Egypt under the Monarchy. In Re-envisioning the Egyptian Monarchy, ed. Arthur Goldschmidt, Amy Johnson, and Barak Salmoni. Pp. 124–163. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Salamandra, Christa. 2004. A New Old Damascus: Authenticity and Distinction in Urban Syria. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Salvatore, Armando. 1997. Islam and the Public Discourse of Modernity. Reading, England: Ithaca.
——— . 2000. Social Differentiation, Moral Authority and Public Islam in Egypt: The Path of Mustafa Mahmud. Anthropology Today 16(2): 12–15.

Schaub, Mark. 2000. English in the Arab Republic of Egypt. World Englishes 19(2): 225–238.

Selim, Salma.2004. The Novel and the Rural Imaginary in Egypt, 1880-1985. London: Routledge Curzon.
——— .2007. The people’s entertainments: Translation, popular fiction and the Nahdah in Egypt, in Other Renaissances: A New Approach to World Literature, eds. Brenda Dean Schilgen, Gang Zhou & Sandra L. Gilman, New York: Palgrave McMillan Press.
——— . 2009. “Pharaoh’s revenge: Translation, literary history and colonial ambivalence, in Critical Readings in Translation Studies, ed. Mona Baker, London: Routledge.

Sell, Ralph. 1990. International Affinities in Modern Egypt: Results from a Social Distance Survey of Elite Students. International Journal of Middle East Studies 22: 59–84.

Shafik, Viola. 2007. Popular Egyptian Cinema: Gender, Class and Nation. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Sharkey, Heather. 2008. American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Shechter, Relli. 2006. Smoking, Culture and Economy in the Middle East: The Egyptian Tobacco Market 1850–2000. London: Tauris.

Shechter, Relli, ed. 2003. Transitions in Domestic Consumption and Family Life in the Modern Middle East. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Shiraz, Faegheh. 2001. The Veil Unveiled: The Hijab in Modern Culture. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Sidahmed, Rifa’at. 1985. Ikhtiragh al Agl al Misry: Al-Gama’a al-Amrikiyya wal Buhuus al Mushtaraka [Invasion of the Egyptian Mind: The American University and Joint Research]. Cairo: n.p.

Siddiqi, B. H. 1960. Ilm al-Akhlaq: A Brief Survey. Pakistan Philosophical Journal 3(3): 58–66.

Singerman, Diane. 1995. Avenues of Participation: Family, Politics and Networks in Urban Quarters of Cairo. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Singerman, Diane, and Paul Amar. 2006. Introduction: Contesting Myths, Critiquing Cosmopolitanism, and Creating the New Cairo School of Urban Studies. In Cairo Cosmopolitan, ed. Diane Singerman and Paul Amar. Pp. 3–43. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Smith, Elizabeth A. 2006. Place, Class and Race in the Barabra Café: Nubians in Egyptian Media. In Cairo Cosmopolitan, ed. Diane Singerman and Paul Amar. Pp. 399–414. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Sparre, Sara Lei, and Marie Juul Petersen. 2007. Youth and Social Change in Jordan and Egypt. ISIM Review 20: 14–15.

Sreberny, Annabelle. 2001. Mediated Culture in the Middle East: Diffusion, Democracy, Difficulties. Gazette 62(2–3): 101–119.

Starrett, Gregory. 1998. Putting Islam to Work: Education, Politics and Religious Transformation in Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Toth, James. 1999. Rural Labor Movements in Egypt and Their Impact on the State, 1961–1992. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

van Nieuwkerk, Karin. 1995. “A Trade Like Any Other”: Female Singers and Dancers in Egypt. Austin: University of Texas Press.
——— . 2007. From Repentance to Pious Performance. ISIM Review 20: 54–55.

Warschauer, Mark, Ghada R. El Said, and Ayman Zohry. 2002. Language Choice Online: Globalization and Identity in Egypt. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 7(4): (accessed Apr. 14, 2008).

Wassef, Nadia. 1999. Asserting Masculinities: FGM in Egypt Revisited. Middle East Women’s Studies Review 14(3): 1–9.

Watenpaugh, Keith David. 2006. Being Modern in the Middle East: Revolution, Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Arab Middle Class. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Werbner, Pnina. 1997. Afterword: Writing Multiculturalism and Politics in the New Europe. In Debating Cultural Hybridity: Multicultural Identities and the Politics of Antiracism, ed. Pnina Werbner and Tariq Modood. Pp. 261–267. London: Zed.
——— . 1999. Global Pathways: Working Class Cosmopolitans and the Creation of Transnational Ethnic Worlds. Social Anthropology 7(1): 17–35.

Wikan, Unni. 1996. Tomorrow, God Willing: Self-Made Destinies in Cairo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wiktorowicz, Quintan. 2003. Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
252 Re f e rences

Winegar, Jessica. 2006. Creative Reckonings: The Politics of Art and Culture in Contemporary Egypt. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Wise, Lindsay. 2003. “Words from the Heart”: New Forms of Islamic Preaching in Egypt. M.Ph. thesis, Oxford University. (accessed Sept. 10, 2008).

Woltering, Robbert. 2007. Egyptian Public Intellectuals and Their “Wests.” ISIM Review 19: 42–43.

World Bank. 1998. Egypt in the Global Economy: Strategic Choices for Savings, Investments, and Long-Term Growth. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Wynn, Lisa L. 2009. Pyramids and Nightclubs: A Travel Ethnography of Arab and Western Imaginations of Egypt, from King Tut and a Colony of Atlantis to Rumors of Sex Orgies, a Marauding Prince, and Blonde Belly Dancers. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Younis, Wesam Mohamed Ibrahim. 2005. Gated Cities in Greater Cairo. Unpublished M.A. thesis, American University in Cairo.

No comments yet

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: